australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Session 9
9
THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1650 - 1800

INTRODUCTION

The Enlightenment has always been contested territory. Its supporters hail it as the source of everything progressive in the modern world: freedom of thought, rational enquiry, critical thinking, religious tolerance, political liberty, scientific achievement, the pursuit of happiness and hope for the future. Its detractors accuse it of shallow rationalism, naïve optimism, unrealistic universalism and moral darkness. From text: Wiki Age of Enlightenment So what is this movement that divides opinion in this way? How did it come about? Play 12 minute video over view: Intro to Enlightenment Khan overview

1.

THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL CONTRACT

Western political theory has been based on theories of government that were proposed by a small group of critical thinkers in the 1700s who published influential books on their ideas. These books were translated into many European languages and formed the foundation of the many revolutions that swept through Europe starting with the War of Independence in America in 1765 and the French Revolution in 1789 and followed by the many revolutions in continental Europe in the 1800s.

Key Political Ideas:

Video: Thomas Hobbes and Locke 9 mins. John Locke's ideas OR John Lock video 5 mins. Follow up with discussion round the following points. The rights of the individual to life, liberty and property The natural equality of all men All legitimate power must be representative of the people and based on the consent of the people (The social contract) The law should leave people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid. Locke argued that individuals enter into civil society to protect their natural rights using the court system with unbiased judges. Their ideas were initially implemented by ‘enlightened monarchs’ in a number of eighteenth century monarchies before becoming the guiding principles of emerging democracies in later times.

2.

SPREAD OF NEW POLITICAL IDEAS IN EUROPE 1700 - 1800

Locke and Hobbes were not democrats: they supported the rule of ‘enlightened monarchs’ who were absolute rulers. Nobles and legal infrastructure sometimes assisted the monarchs in their decision making as could elite educated citizens with Enlightenment values. Several such monarchs made changes to the government of their countries that supported Enlightenment values.

Enlightened Absolutism:

Seen as “A better way to govern” Rulers remain despotic Promotes the nation-state Fosters scientific discovery

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Builds 4th largest Army in Europe Streamlines government

Joseph II of Austria

Problem uniting disparate groups (Austrians and Magyars) Abolishes serfdom Forces taxes on nobility Backs primary education Takes control of Catholic Church in Austria Reforms repealed after death

Catherine the Great of Russia

Comes to power after unexplained death of husband Peter III From Germany, continued to westernize Russia Corresponded with Enlightenment thinkers Compromised with nobility for control Enlightened in philosophy, despotic in deed eg Demanded free peasants work for nobles

Rousseau:

Introduced Locke’s ideas to France. Rousseau introduced the concept that ‘natural man’, as distinct from corrupted man, had no want that he could not fulfil himself and protected this freedom by entering into a social contract with civil society that achieved unity while preserving individual freedom. Disparaged formal education believing children should learn from nature. Rousseau supported the idea of government by the people with a moral and collective legislative body constituted by citizens. While neither Hobbes nor Locke were democrats, Rousseau’s ideas were more radical and in support of republican rule by the people, a concept embraced by the American War of Independence (1775 - 1783)and the French Revolution (1789 - 1799). The American Declaration of Independence incorporates many of Locke’s and Rousseau’s ideals, while looking to ancient Rome as a model for a Republican government. The 13 States united with little bloodshed after the war dispatching the British colonial officials. In France, the French Revolution was more bloody with many thousands of aristocrats and their sympathisers executed by guillotine along with King Louis xvi and his Queen. The initial citizen rulers of the revolution were also deposed and executed as rule of law descended into chaos until Napoleon Bonaparte took over government in 1799.

European Political Responses 1800 - 1899

The French Revolution both inspired and terrified other fragmented European powers as citizens started campaigns to both unite their countries (Greece and Italy) and win the right for some citizens to participate in electing governments as seen in Holland and England.

3.

European Revolutions from 1800 – 1899

A century of revolutions aimed at gaining freedom from external rule and introducing democracies.

Major ones:

France:

1830: The July Revolution, or the French Revolution of 1830, was a revolt by the middle class against Bourbon King Charles X which forced him out of office and replaced him with the Orleanist King Louis-Philippe (the "July Monarchy"). 1832: The June Rebellion in France. The French Revolution of 1848 led to the creation of the French Second Republic 1871: The Paris Commune.

The Revolutions of 1820

1820: Revolutions of 1820 in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies, and for independence from Ottoman rule in Greece.

The Revolutions of 1848

1848: The Revolutions of 1848 were a wave of failed liberal and republican revolutions that swept through Europe. o The French Revolution of 1848 led to the creation of the French Second Republic. o The Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states. o The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. o The Revolutions of 1848 in the Danish States started in the German speaking cities of Altona and Kiel. It spilled into a peaceful revolution in Copenhagen, which abolished absolutism in favor of parliamentary constitutional monarchy, and a counter-revolutionary war against the German speaking minority. o The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 grew into a war for independence from Austrian Empire. o The Czech Revolution of 1848. o The Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 took place during the Great Famine. o Serbian Revolution of 1848. o Wallachian Revolution of 1848. o Moldavian Revolution of 1848.

Others (another 23)

1803: The rebellion of Robert Emmet in Dublin, Ireland against British rule. 1804–1817: The Serbian Revolution against Ottoman rule erupts. 1804–1813: The First Serbian uprising against Ottomans. 1807: Tican's Rebellion in Serbia against Austrian rule. 1808: Kruščica Rebellion in Serbia against Austrian rule. 1808: The Dos de Mayo Uprising against the occupation of Madrid by French troops. 1808–1814: The Peninsular War. 1809: Tyrolean Rebellion against French occupation forces, crushed after two months with the execution of its main leader Andreas Hofer 1814: Norwegian War of Independence. 1815–1817: The Second Serbian uprising against Ottomans. 1830: The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic and neutral Belgium. 1831, 1834, 1848: The Canut revolts by Lyonnais silk workers (French: canuts) 1831–1832: The Bosnian uprising in Ottoman Empire. 1837–1838: The Rebellions of 1837 and the Upper Canada Rebellion: failed republican revolutions against British rule in Canada. 1854: A revolution in Spain against the Moderate Party Government. 1859: The Second Italian War of Independence. 1863–65: The January Uprising was the Polish uprising against the Russian Empire. 1867: The Fenian Rising: an attempt at a nationwide rebellion by the Irish Republican Brotherhood against British rule. 1868: The Glorious Revolution in Spain deposes Queen Isabella II. 1875–77: The Herzegovinian rebellion, the most famous of the rebellions against the Ottoman Empire in Herzegovina; unrest soon spread to other areas of Ottoman Bosnia. 1875: The Stara Zagora Uprising, a revolt by the Bulgarian population against Ottoman rule. 1876: The April uprising, a revolt by the Bulgarian population against Ottoman rule. Go to UPRISINGS EUROPE 1800 - 1899 for the complete list. Wiki. END of LIST The sheer number of uprisings demonstrates the profound influence of the political ideas of the Enlightenment and the way they disrupted monarchies and prepared the way for increasing democratic participation in governments.

4.

How did these political ideas take root and spread so widely?

Middle classes had access to these significant books and pamphlets and meeting places were created where people could meet and discuss them. These meeting places enabled people of all social classes to attend and join in the debates together. Books alone did not form the major part of spreading the new political ideas to the masses. A mass campaign emerged in which the lower classes were bombarded with satiric and sometimes incorrect stories about the aristocracy, other elites and the monarchs and their courts. This introduced a hish level of disrespect and general antangonism against priviledge. This paved the way for justifying citizens anger in the uprisings in the destabilization of old regimes. Show part of Prof Miller’s Yale video: 12:58 to 27:23 The Spread of Enlightenment Thinking through the Public Sphere: Academies, Masonic Lodges, and Salons [00:05:52] The Enlightenment among the Grub Street Hacks [00:12:58] Desacralization of the French Monarchy [00:23:05] Legal Briefs on the Despotism of the Monarchy: The Law as a New Source of Sovereignty[00:27:43] Sensational Royal Affairs: The Erosion of Monarchical Prestige [00:36:41]

5.

Other new ways of thinking

Key progress was made in the sciences and engineering that fuelled the Industrial Revolution in England and later the northern European countries. Every country wanted to participate in this creation of wealth and prosperity. The scientific method of examining everything logically and placing reason- and not tradition- at the centre of knowledge caused an explosion in scientific knowledge. Scottish philosopher Adam Smith in his book ‘The Wealth of Nations’ proposed new theories of wealth creation that became the first modern work of Economics - a theory of Capitalism that became intrinsically linked to the democratic movements. Other British authors expanded on these ideas. These economic theories are the basis of modern Government strategies in managing the economy today. Video Adam Smith 12 minutes Adam Smith Wealth of Nations END
9
australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Presenter Meg Dillon
Session 9
THE ENLIGHTENMENT 1650 - 1800

INTRODUCTION

The Enlightenment has always been contested territory. Its supporters hail it as the source of everything progressive in the modern world: freedom of thought, rational enquiry, critical thinking, religious tolerance, political liberty, scientific achievement, the pursuit of happiness and hope for the future. Its detractors accuse it of shallow rationalism, naïve optimism, unrealistic universalism and moral darkness. From text: Wiki Age of Enlightenment So what is this movement that divides opinion in this way? How did it come about? Play 12 minute video over view: Intro to Enlightenment Khan overview

1.

THE POLITICAL AND SOCIAL

CONTRACT

Western political theory has been based on theories of government that were proposed by a small group of critical thinkers in the 1700s who published influential books on their ideas. These books were translated into many European languages and formed the foundation of the many revolutions that swept through Europe starting with the War of Independence in America in 1765 and the French Revolution in 1789 and followed by the many revolutions in continental Europe in the 1800s.

Key Political Ideas:

Video: Thomas Hobbes and Locke 9 mins. John Locke's ideas OR John Lock video 5 mins. Follow up with discussion round the following points. The rights of the individual to life, liberty and property The natural equality of all men All legitimate power must be representative of the people and based on the consent of the people (The social contract) The law should leave people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid. Locke argued that individuals enter into civil society to protect their natural rights using the court system with unbiased judges. Their ideas were initially implemented by ‘enlightened monarchs’ in a number of eighteenth century monarchies before becoming the guiding principles of emerging democracies in later times.

2.

SPREAD OF NEW POLITICAL IDEAS IN

EUROPE 1700 - 1800

Locke and Hobbes were not democrats: they supported the rule of ‘enlightened monarchs’ who were absolute rulers. Nobles and legal infrastructure sometimes assisted the monarchs in their decision making as could elite educated citizens with Enlightenment values. Several such monarchs made changes to the government of their countries that supported Enlightenment values.

Enlightened Absolutism:

Seen as “A better way to govern” Rulers remain despotic Promotes the nation-state Fosters scientific discovery

Frederick the Great of Prussia

Builds 4th largest Army in Europe Streamlines government

Joseph II of Austria

Problem uniting disparate groups (Austrians and Magyars) Abolishes serfdom Forces taxes on nobility Backs primary education Takes control of Catholic Church in Austria Reforms repealed after death

Catherine the Great of Russia

Comes to power after unexplained death of husband Peter III From Germany, continued to westernize Russia Corresponded with Enlightenment thinkers Compromised with nobility for control Enlightened in philosophy, despotic in deed eg Demanded free peasants work for nobles

Rousseau:

Introduced Locke’s ideas to France. Rousseau introduced the concept that ‘natural man’, as distinct from corrupted man, had no want that he could not fulfil himself and protected this freedom by entering into a social contract with civil society that achieved unity while preserving individual freedom. Disparaged formal education believing children should learn from nature. Rousseau supported the idea of government by the people with a moral and collective legislative body constituted by citizens. While neither Hobbes nor Locke were democrats, Rousseau’s ideas were more radical and in support of republican rule by the people, a concept embraced by the American War of Independence (1775 - 1783)and the French Revolution (1789 - 1799). The American Declaration of Independence incorporates many of Locke’s and Rousseau’s ideals, while looking to ancient Rome as a model for a Republican government. The 13 States united with little bloodshed after the war dispatching the British colonial officials. In France, the French Revolution was more bloody with many thousands of aristocrats and their sympathisers executed by guillotine along with King Louis xvi and his Queen. The initial citizen rulers of the revolution were also deposed and executed as rule of law descended into chaos until Napoleon Bonaparte took over government in 1799.

European Political Responses 1800 - 1899

The French Revolution both inspired and terrified other fragmented European powers as citizens started campaigns to both unite their countries (Greece and Italy) and win the right for some citizens to participate in electing governments as seen in Holland and England.

3.

European Revolutions from 1800 –

1899

A century of revolutions aimed at gaining freedom from external rule and introducing democracies.

Major ones:

France:

1830: The July Revolution, or the French Revolution of 1830, was a revolt by the middle class against Bourbon King Charles X which forced him out of office and replaced him with the Orleanist King Louis-Philippe (the "July Monarchy"). 1832: The June Rebellion in France. The French Revolution of 1848 led to the creation of the French Second Republic 1871: The Paris Commune.

The Revolutions of 1820

1820: Revolutions of 1820 in Spain, Portugal, Russia, and Italy for constitutional monarchies, and for independence from Ottoman rule in Greece.

The Revolutions of 1848

1848: The Revolutions of 1848 were a wave of failed liberal and republican revolutions that swept through Europe. o The French Revolution of 1848 led to the creation of the French Second Republic. o The Revolutions of 1848 in the Italian states. o The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states. o The Revolutions of 1848 in the Danish States started in the German speaking cities of Altona and Kiel. It spilled into a peaceful revolution in Copenhagen, which abolished absolutism in favor of parliamentary constitutional monarchy, and a counter-revolutionary war against the German speaking minority. o The Hungarian Revolution of 1848 grew into a war for independence from Austrian Empire. o The Czech Revolution of 1848. o The Young Irelander Rebellion of 1848 took place during the Great Famine. o Serbian Revolution of 1848. o Wallachian Revolution of 1848. o Moldavian Revolution of 1848.

Others (another 23)

1803: The rebellion of Robert Emmet in Dublin, Ireland against British rule. 1804–1817: The Serbian Revolution against Ottoman rule erupts. 1804–1813: The First Serbian uprising against Ottomans. 1807: Tican's Rebellion in Serbia against Austrian rule. 1808: Kruščica Rebellion in Serbia against Austrian rule. 1808: The Dos de Mayo Uprising against the occupation of Madrid by French troops. 1808–1814: The Peninsular War. 1809: Tyrolean Rebellion against French occupation forces, crushed after two months with the execution of its main leader Andreas Hofer 1814: Norwegian War of Independence. 1815–1817: The Second Serbian uprising against Ottomans. 1830: The Belgian Revolution was a conflict in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands that began with a riot in Brussels in August 1830 and eventually led to the establishment of an independent, Catholic and neutral Belgium. 1831, 1834, 1848: The Canut revolts by Lyonnais silk workers (French: canuts) 1831–1832: The Bosnian uprising in Ottoman Empire. 1837–1838: The Rebellions of 1837 and the Upper Canada Rebellion: failed republican revolutions against British rule in Canada. 1854: A revolution in Spain against the Moderate Party Government. 1859: The Second Italian War of Independence. 1863–65: The January Uprising was the Polish uprising against the Russian Empire. 1867: The Fenian Rising: an attempt at a nationwide rebellion by the Irish Republican Brotherhood against British rule. 1868: The Glorious Revolution in Spain deposes Queen Isabella II. 1875–77: The Herzegovinian rebellion, the most famous of the rebellions against the Ottoman Empire in Herzegovina; unrest soon spread to other areas of Ottoman Bosnia. 1875: The Stara Zagora Uprising, a revolt by the Bulgarian population against Ottoman rule. 1876: The April uprising, a revolt by the Bulgarian population against Ottoman rule. Go to UPRISINGS EUROPE 1800 - 1899 for the complete list. Wiki. END of LIST The sheer number of uprisings demonstrates the profound influence of the political ideas of the Enlightenment and the way they disrupted monarchies and prepared the way for increasing democratic participation in governments.

4.

How did these political ideas take

root and spread so widely?

Middle classes had access to these significant books and pamphlets and meeting places were created where people could meet and discuss them. These meeting places enabled people of all social classes to attend and join in the debates together. Books alone did not form the major part of spreading the new political ideas to the masses. A mass campaign emerged in which the lower classes were bombarded with satiric and sometimes incorrect stories about the aristocracy, other elites and the monarchs and their courts. This introduced a hish level of disrespect and general antangonism against priviledge. This paved the way for justifying citizens anger in the uprisings in the destabilization of old regimes. Show part of Prof Miller’s Yale video: 12:58 to 27:23 The Spread of Enlightenment Thinking through the Public Sphere: Academies, Masonic Lodges, and Salons [00:05:52] The Enlightenment among the Grub Street Hacks [00:12:58] Desacralization of the French Monarchy [00:23:05] Legal Briefs on the Despotism of the Monarchy: The Law as a New Source of Sovereignty[00:27:43] Sensational Royal Affairs: The Erosion of Monarchical Prestige [00:36:41]

5.

Other new ways of thinking

Key progress was made in the sciences and engineering that fuelled the Industrial Revolution in England and later the northern European countries. Every country wanted to participate in this creation of wealth and prosperity. The scientific method of examining everything logically and placing reason- and not tradition- at the centre of knowledge caused an explosion in scientific knowledge. Scottish philosopher Adam Smith in his book ‘The Wealth of Nations’ proposed new theories of wealth creation that became the first modern work of Economics - a theory of Capitalism that became intrinsically linked to the democratic movements. Other British authors expanded on these ideas. These economic theories are the basis of modern Government strategies in managing the economy today. Video Adam Smith 12 minutes Adam Smith Wealth of Nations END