australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Session 7
7

Introduction:

The Protestant Reformation effectively split Europe in two halves: the Mediterranean Catholic countries of Spain, Portugal and Italy; and the Northern countries of England, Scotland, Holland, Norway, Sweden where a transition occurred to Protestantism. Some historians see the Reformation as a watershed between Medieval times and the start of a new European direction based on the theory of Humanism with a focus on individualism and science.

1. Setting the stage

What was it like to live in Europe prior to 1517?

Play video Khan Academy 12 minutes. Introduction to the Protestant Reformation Setting the Stage

Mini introduction to these issues:

1400 – 1500: Renaissance in Italy had spread classical learning and the arts throughout the elites and educated classes of Europe. 1454: the invention of the printing press made information far more accessible to all who could read. Education for the middle classes became more widespread, more schools and universities were extended or established. Small wars were still endemic between small powers, with the creation of two major political factions – the Pope’s party (Geulfs) and the Holy Roman Emperors party (Ghibellines). Better conditions for the working classes after the huge reduction of the population by the plague in the C14th: better wages; serfdom almost gone; better living conditions and access to food. Wealthy merchant classes were established and ready to challenge traditional rulers and exert their own political power. The Renaissance fostered a sense of individualism, which had been explored by theologians in the late Middle Ages Europe’s population starting to increase again. The powerful Catholic Church was the only Christian church in Europe. Church held the spiritual power and partially used this power over life and the afterlife to help control the people. Church was immensely wealthy through gifts and also tithes collected from all corners of Europe. Pope Julius 11 ascended the papal throne in 1503 and began the task of rebuilding Rome from the ruins. In 1513 Leo X succeeded him. He was a Medici and continued the rebuilding projects. He started a major and immensely costly project to rebuild and extend St Peter’s Basilica in Rome so that it would astound the world with its magnificence. Funding St Peters required far more money than even the Church could raise through its normal wealth collections. Leo X believed it would be easier to collect more money from the small and divided German principalities, as they would offer least resistance to this. He dispatched churchmen to visit all communities and sell people ‘indulgences’. These documents purported to release the dead from some of the time they would spend in Purgatory. Indulgences were part of the church’s old tradition and had been used during the Crusades and at other times to reward people who engaged in ‘good works’. While these had been often judiciously sold, Leo X’s collectors were persistent and used crude tactics to persuade people of all classes to buy indulgences for themselves or their dead relatives. Johannes Tetzel attracted large crowds round the Wittenberg area as he made extravagant claims for these products. Martin Luther a Doctor of Theology at Wittenberg University who opposed indulgences and in 1517 nailed up papers on the door of the cathedral that contained 95 reasons in Latin opposing indulgences.

Discussion.

Did these times sound like the possible start of a new era? What evidence can we find to support our view?

2.

Martin Luther

Discuss and contrast these two different introductions to Martin Luther - the man. Play Martin Luther Khan Academy - 12 minutes. and Play first 30 minutes of Rick Steves’ video Martin Luther's Reformation

Discussion

Steves is a Lutheran Protestant. Does he present a balanced picture of Luther and the Catholic Church that opposed him? For a Catholic view watch the short video Catholic view of Luther. o The presenter argues that Luther was confused about major Catholic doctrines when he released his 95 theses in 1517. o Luther only gradually developed his ideas over the next few years. Even in 1521 at the Diet of Worms he seemed to contradict himself many times, sometimes acknowledging the Pope and doctrinal authority and sometimes criticizing it. Is this a reasonable criticism of Luther? How does Steves counter it? Is Steves’ view of the late mediaeval world too grim? What counter arguments are historians now presenting? Was Steves’ explanation of the concept of ‘Indulgences’ consistent with Catholic views? Was it reasonable for Popes Julius 11 and Leo X to want to build a stunning basilica to honor St Peter? Luther saw them as greedy – was this fair? Why did Luther’s new ideas become instantly popular in Germany?

3.

Variations of Protestantism

Play Khan Academy Varieties of Protestantism Khan. 12 minutes Contrast with: Rick Steves’s video Martin Luther's Reformation (30 minute point to 38 minutes).

Discussion

Luther’s ideas were built on several previous religious protests against some Catholic doctrines and the Papacy. Mini discussion of the two videos. o John Wycliffe an English theologian from Oxford University. o 1320 – 1428 His body was exhumed by the Pope’s orders , burnt and the ashes thrown into the river. o Rudolph Buddensieg finds two distinct aspects in Wycliffe's work. The first, from 1366 to 1378, reflects a political struggle with Rome, while 1378 to 1384 is more a religious struggle. In each Wycliffehas two approaches: he attacks both the Papacy and its institutions,and also Roman Catholic doctrine. o Wycliffe and his Lollards movement are regarged as precursers of Luther according to some historians. o Jan Hus o Hus, Jan (1369–1415) Bohemian religious reformer. He studied and later taught at Prague, where he was ordained priest. Influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe, Hus was excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII in 1411. In De Ecclesia (1412), Hus outlined his case for reform of the Church. o As a result of his criticisms of the church and doctrinal issues, Jan Hus from today's Czech Republic—was burned at the stake outside the city walls of Konstanz (Constance) in today's Germany. The date of his execution was July 6, 1415. . Luther took several years after 1517, to formulate his doctrines of Grace, Faith and Scripture. During this period and beyond he was in discussion and consultation with many other church reformers. This period saw the rise of a number of other Protestant groups that believed in variations of Lutheran doctrines. o Huldach Zwingli of Zurich claimed the Eucharist bread and wine were entirely symbolic and supported divine rights of rulers. o Anabaptists introduced adult baptism. o Luther and John Calvin preached a version of predestination ie that God had decided the outcome of heaven or hell for each person before they were born. It was thought that this precluded free will being exercised by people who wished to change their fate. o John Calvin was a famous French theologian and a major leader of the Protestant Reformation. He helped popularize the belief in the sovereignty of God in all areas of life, as well as the doctrine of predestination. The theological approach advanced by Calvin has come to be known as 'Calvinism.' In some respects these discussions and religious groups that formed round different protestant doctrinal issues resemble the different views that early Christians in different cities espoused. The many ‘letters’ to these groups by disciples that are found in the New Testament are seen by some as attempts to correct these divergent views and create a more homogenous set of early Christian ideas.

How Europe Divided?

Look at map of division of Europe between North and South – protestants V Catholics. Spead of Lutherism Map Why did Europe split this way?

4.

The Catholic Counter Reformation

Play video Rick Steves’ video Martin Luther's Reformation from 38 minute point to 44 minutes.

Discussion of video & mini lecture

As different versions of Protestantism spread rapidly throughout Germany and then Europe, protestants took over Catholic churches and stripped them of their decorative interiors by burning images and statues of saints, whitewashing the walls and destroying many decorative gold and silver items. Pipe Organs and pulpits were installed instead. Riots accompanied much of this destruction. This civil disobedience was not condoned by Luther. 1521 The Holy Roman Emperor called Luther to the Diet of Worms, a specially constituted conclave of catholic theologians and churchmen, to answer the charge of heresy. Luther refused to change his views and was excommunicated o The Diet of Worms in 1521 was an imperial council that was convened to decide the fate of Martin Luther. It was held in Worms, Germany. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V presided over the diet. ... The diet declared the Edict of Worms, which made Luther an outlaw and forbid anyone from helping him escape punishment.J 1545 Council of Trent was established by the Catholic church to try and reconcile with the various Protestant faiths. Although invited , Protestant theologians did not attend and so various Catholic doctrines were re-affirmed. o Power of the priesthood o Reward for good works o Doctrine of purgatory o Scripture alone not enough - other church teachings were needed to explain beliefs. o Images of saints and holy pictures to be used in churches to honor saints and teach important lessons to the illiterate. Counter reformation reaffirmed basic doctrines, and o Instituted major campaigns to spread catholic doctrines especially in the new World o Heresy was to be actively stamped out. Index of Forbidden Books established. In Spain the Inquisition was introduced. o Establishment of the Jesuit Order to act as the intellectual supporters of the Pope. How reasonable is Steves’ phrase ‘propaganda art’? To what is he referring?

5.

Emergence of the Modern World:

How did the Reformation along with the Renaissance herald changes of attitude that changed Europe from its mediaeval past to the start of modern times? Rick Steves’ video Martin Luther's Reformation (Play video from 44 minute point to conclusion – 11 minutes).

Discussion:

Was the violence of religious wars, desecration of churches, burning of heretics etc simply an expression of those historical times? How tolerant are we today?

Want to know more?

Check these sources

Texts

1. Martin Luther Biog. Biog Martin Luther Short but succinct. Good. Good short intro text. Citation; Title Martin Luther - biography, Biography.com editors, last updated April 17 2019 accessed 3 June 2019. URL: https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/martin-luther

MAP

Map shows Europe divided into catholic and protestant countries by 1560: Spead of Lutherism Map

Videos

Luther Martin Luther video American 55 mins Khan Academy Protestant Reformation. Each 12 minutes 1. Setting the stage: Setting the Stage Khan Intro Protestant Reformation (https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/renaissance-and-reformation/protestant- reformation/v/protestant-reformation-1) 2. Martin Luther: Martin Luther (https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/renaissance-and-reformation/protestant- reformation/v/introduction-to-the-protestant-reformation-luther-2-of-4) 3. Varieties of Protestantism Varieties of Protestantism Khan 4. Catholic Counter reformation Catholic Counter reformation Khan History Magazine video 4 mins and text. Martin Luther. Succinct. Martin Luther History Magazine (https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and-history/magazine/2017/09-10/history-martin-luther-religious- revolution/) Martin Luther 95 Theses 11 min video Martin Luther 95 Theses This is the catholic refutation of Luther’s ideas. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kd66KXIbAjc) Rick Stein: Martin luther one hour video Martin Luthers Reformation From the protestant side. Contributed to the modern world. He is a Lutheram philanthropist. (https://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-listen/video/tv-show/tv-specials/luther)
7
australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Presenter Meg Dillon
Session 7
To be held on Friday 10 May beginning 14:00

Introduction:

The Protestant Reformation effectively split Europe in two halves: the Mediterranean Catholic countries of Spain, Portugal and Italy; and the Northern countries of England, Scotland, Holland, Norway, Sweden where a transition occurred to Protestantism. Some historians see the Reformation as a watershed between Medieval times and the start of a new European direction based on the theory of Humanism with a focus on individualism and science.

1. Setting the stage

What was it like to live in Europe prior to

1517?

Play video Khan Academy 12 minutes. Introduction to the Protestant Reformation Setting the Stage

Mini introduction to these issues:

1400 – 1500: Renaissance in Italy had spread classical learning and the arts throughout the elites and educated classes of Europe. 1454: the invention of the printing press made information far more accessible to all who could read. Education for the middle classes became more widespread, more schools and universities were extended or established. Small wars were still endemic between small powers, with the creation of two major political factions – the Pope’s party (Geulfs) and the Holy Roman Emperors party (Ghibellines). Better conditions for the working classes after the huge reduction of the population by the plague in the C14th: better wages; serfdom almost gone; better living conditions and access to food. Wealthy merchant classes were established and ready to challenge traditional rulers and exert their own political power. The Renaissance fostered a sense of individualism, which had been explored by theologians in the late Middle Ages Europe’s population starting to increase again. The powerful Catholic Church was the only Christian church in Europe. Church held the spiritual power and partially used this power over life and the afterlife to help control the people. Church was immensely wealthy through gifts and also tithes collected from all corners of Europe. Pope Julius 11 ascended the papal throne in 1503 and began the task of rebuilding Rome from the ruins. In 1513 Leo X succeeded him. He was a Medici and continued the rebuilding projects. He started a major and immensely costly project to rebuild and extend St Peter’s Basilica in Rome so that it would astound the world with its magnificence. Funding St Peters required far more money than even the Church could raise through its normal wealth collections. Leo X believed it would be easier to collect more money from the small and divided German principalities, as they would offer least resistance to this. He dispatched churchmen to visit all communities and sell people ‘indulgences’. These documents purported to release the dead from some of the time they would spend in Purgatory. Indulgences were part of the church’s old tradition and had been used during the Crusades and at other times to reward people who engaged in ‘good works’. While these had been often judiciously sold, Leo X’s collectors were persistent and used crude tactics to persuade people of all classes to buy indulgences for themselves or their dead relatives. Johannes Tetzel attracted large crowds round the Wittenberg area as he made extravagant claims for these products. Martin Luther a Doctor of Theology at Wittenberg University who opposed indulgences and in 1517 nailed up papers on the door of the cathedral that contained 95 reasons in Latin opposing indulgences.

Discussion.

Did these times sound like the possible start of a new era? What evidence can we find to support our view?

2.

Martin Luther

Discuss and contrast these two different introductions to Martin Luther - the man. Play Martin Luther Khan Academy - 12 minutes. and Play first 30 minutes of Rick Steves’ video Martin Luther's Reformation

Discussion

Steves is a Lutheran Protestant. Does he present a balanced picture of Luther and the Catholic Church that opposed him? For a Catholic view watch the short video Catholic view of Luther. o The presenter argues that Luther was confused about major Catholic doctrines when he released his 95 theses in 1517. o Luther only gradually developed his ideas over the next few years. Even in 1521 at the Diet of Worms he seemed to contradict himself many times, sometimes acknowledging the Pope and doctrinal authority and sometimes criticizing it. Is this a reasonable criticism of Luther? How does Steves counter it? Is Steves’ view of the late mediaeval world too grim? What counter arguments are historians now presenting? Was Steves’ explanation of the concept of ‘Indulgences’ consistent with Catholic views? Was it reasonable for Popes Julius 11 and Leo X to want to build a stunning basilica to honor St Peter? Luther saw them as greedy – was this fair? Why did Luther’s new ideas become instantly popular in Germany?

3.

Variations of Protestantism

Play Khan Academy Varieties of Protestantism Khan. 12 minutes Contrast with: Rick Steves’s video Martin Luther's Reformation (30 minute point to 38 minutes).

Discussion

Luther’s ideas were built on several previous religious protests against some Catholic doctrines and the Papacy. Mini discussion of the two videos. o John Wycliffe an English theologian from Oxford University. o 1320 – 1428 His body was exhumed by the Pope’s orders , burnt and the ashes thrown into the river. o Rudolph Buddensieg finds two distinct aspects in Wycliffe's work. The first, from 1366 to 1378, reflects a political struggle with Rome, while 1378 to 1384 is more a religious struggle. In each Wycliffehas two approaches: he attacks both the Papacy and its institutions,and also Roman Catholic doctrine. o Wycliffe and his Lollards movement are regarged as precursers of Luther according to some historians. o Jan Hus o Hus, Jan (1369–1415) Bohemian religious reformer. He studied and later taught at Prague, where he was ordained priest. Influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe, Hus was excommunicated by Pope Gregory XII in 1411. In De Ecclesia (1412), Hus outlined his case for reform of the Church. o As a result of his criticisms of the church and doctrinal issues, Jan Hus from today's Czech Republic—was burned at the stake outside the city walls of Konstanz (Constance) in today's Germany. The date of his execution was July 6, 1415. . Luther took several years after 1517, to formulate his doctrines of Grace, Faith and Scripture. During this period and beyond he was in discussion and consultation with many other church reformers. This period saw the rise of a number of other Protestant groups that believed in variations of Lutheran doctrines. o Huldach Zwingli of Zurich claimed the Eucharist bread and wine were entirely symbolic and supported divine rights of rulers. o Anabaptists introduced adult baptism. o Luther and John Calvin preached a version of predestination ie that God had decided the outcome of heaven or hell for each person before they were born. It was thought that this precluded free will being exercised by people who wished to change their fate. o John Calvin was a famous French theologian and a major leader of the Protestant Reformation. He helped popularize the belief in the sovereignty of God in all areas of life, as well as the doctrine of predestination. The theological approach advanced by Calvin has come to be known as 'Calvinism.' In some respects these discussions and religious groups that formed round different protestant doctrinal issues resemble the different views that early Christians in different cities espoused. The many ‘letters’ to these groups by disciples that are found in the New Testament are seen by some as attempts to correct these divergent views and create a more homogenous set of early Christian ideas.

How Europe Divided?

Look at map of division of Europe between North and South – protestants V Catholics. Spead of Lutherism Map Why did Europe split this way?

4.

The Catholic Counter Reformation

Play video Rick Steves’ video Martin Luther's Reformation from 38 minute point to 44 minutes.

Discussion of video & mini lecture

As different versions of Protestantism spread rapidly throughout Germany and then Europe, protestants took over Catholic churches and stripped them of their decorative interiors by burning images and statues of saints, whitewashing the walls and destroying many decorative gold and silver items. Pipe Organs and pulpits were installed instead. Riots accompanied much of this destruction. This civil disobedience was not condoned by Luther. 1521 The Holy Roman Emperor called Luther to the Diet of Worms, a specially constituted conclave of catholic theologians and churchmen, to answer the charge of heresy. Luther refused to change his views and was excommunicated o The Diet of Worms in 1521 was an imperial council that was convened to decide the fate of Martin Luther. It was held in Worms, Germany. The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V presided over the diet. ... The diet declared the Edict of Worms, which made Luther an outlaw and forbid anyone from helping him escape punishment.J 1545 Council of Trent was established by the Catholic church to try and reconcile with the various Protestant faiths. Although invited , Protestant theologians did not attend and so various Catholic doctrines were re- affirmed. o Power of the priesthood o Reward for good works o Doctrine of purgatory o Scripture alone not enough - other church teachings were needed to explain beliefs. o Images of saints and holy pictures to be used in churches to honor saints and teach important lessons to the illiterate. Counter reformation reaffirmed basic doctrines, and o Instituted major campaigns to spread catholic doctrines especially in the new World o Heresy was to be actively stamped out. Index of Forbidden Books established. In Spain the Inquisition was introduced. o Establishment of the Jesuit Order to act as the intellectual supporters of the Pope. How reasonable is Steves’ phrase ‘propaganda art’? To what is he referring?

5.

Emergence of the Modern World:

How did the Reformation along with the Renaissance herald changes of attitude that changed Europe from its mediaeval past to the start of modern times? Rick Steves’ video Martin Luther's Reformation (Play video from 44 minute point to conclusion – 11 minutes).

Discussion:

Was the violence of religious wars, desecration of churches, burning of heretics etc simply an expression of those historical times? How tolerant are we today?

Want to know more?

Check these sources

Texts

1. Martin Luther Biog. Biog Martin Luther Short but succinct. Good. Good short intro text. Citation; Title Martin Luther - biography, Biography.com editors, last updated April 17 2019 accessed 3 June 2019. URL: https://www.biography.com/religious-figure/martin- luther

MAP

Map shows Europe divided into catholic and protestant countries by 1560: Spead of Lutherism Map

Videos

Luther Martin Luther video American 55 mins Khan Academy Protestant Reformation. Each 12 minutes 1. Setting the stage: Setting the Stage Khan Intro Protestant Reformation (https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world- history/renaissance-and-reformation/protestant- reformation/v/protestant-reformation-1) 2. Martin Luther: Martin Luther (https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world- history/renaissance-and-reformation/protestant- reformation/v/introduction-to-the-protestant- reformation-luther-2-of-4) 3. Varieties of Protestantism Varieties of Protestantism Khan 4. Catholic Counter reformation Catholic Counter reformation Khan History Magazine video 4 mins and text. Martin Luther. Succinct. Martin Luther History Magazine (https://www.nationalgeographic.com/archaeology-and- history/magazine/2017/09-10/history-martin-luther- religious-revolution/) Martin Luther 95 Theses 11 min video Martin Luther 95 Theses This is the catholic refutation of Luther’s ideas. (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kd66KXIbAjc) Rick Stein: Martin luther one hour video Martin Luthers Reformation From the protestant side. Contributed to the modern world. He is a Lutheram philanthropist. (https://www.ricksteves.com/watch-read-listen/video/tv- show/tv-specials/luther)