australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
April 6, 1341: Francesco Petrarch Is Crowned Poet Laureate Many historians cite this date as the beginning of the Renaissance. 1397: Giovanni De Medici Moves To Florence Giovanni de Medici, the papal banker, headquarters his business in Florence and becomes involved in Florentine public life and patronage of the arts, laying the groundwork for the rise of his son Cosimo de Medici to power. 1401: Ghiberti Wins The Right To Sculpt The Northern Doors Of The Baptistry Ghiberti is commissioned and takes 28 years to sculpt the bronze doors of the Florentine church. The doors remain one of the most valued treasures of the Renaissance 1420: The Papacy Returns To Rome The Papacy, having been located in Avignon since 1305, returns to Rome, bringing with it the prestige and wealth necessary to rebuild the city. 1423: Francesco Fosari Becomes Doge Of Venice Fosari assumes the position of doge and attempts to usurp great political power, to the distaste of the Great Council, Venice's oligarchic ruling body, which asserts its power over the doge and torments him until his resignation. 1429: Cosimo De Medici Takes Over His Father's Business Cosimo de Medici becomes head of the bank after his father dies, using his economic power to consolidate political power. Within five years he runs the city without question. 1447: Pope Nicholas V Ascends To The Throne Pope Nicholas V takes the first steps toward turning Rome into a Renaissance city, undertaking many construction projects and strongly encouraging the arts. 1450: Francesco Sforza Seizes Control Of Milan After a short experiment with republican government, Milan returns to monarchy when Francesco Sforza takes control of the city. His most prominent successor is Ludovico Sforza. 1453: Constantinople Falls The center of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks, provoking an exodus of Greek people and works of art and literature into the Italian city-states. 1454: Johann Gutenberg Prints The Gutenberg Bible Gutenberg is credited with the invention of the printing press in Europe, and ushers in the age of printed books, making literature more accessible to all Europeans. 1464: Lorenzo De Medici Ascends To Power In Florence After Cosimo's death in 1464, his son Piero rules until his death in 1469, when power falls into the hands of Lorenzo, who rules until 1491, raising Florence to its greatest heights of the Renaissance. 1471: Sixtus IV Becomes Pope Sixtus IV becomes pope, undertaking many successful projects in Rome, but disgracing the Church through his corruption and practice of nepotism. 1486: Pico Publishes His Collection Of 900 Treatises Pico's philosophy often conflicts with that of the Catholic Church and he is declared a heretic. He is saved from demise by the intervention of Lorenzo de Medici. 1492: Rodrigo Borgia Becomes Pope Alexander VI Alexander VI is widely known as a corrupt and manipulative pope, scheming for his family's benefit. Many claim that the Papacy reaches its greatest moral decline of the Renaissance during his pontificate. 1494: The Medici Are Ousted From Florence By Girolamo Savonarola Savonarola, preaching a return to simple faith, leads a popular uprising against the Medici, who are forced to flee. Savonarola's rule is short-lived, and he is burned as a heretic in 1495. 1494: Ludovico Sforza Permits The French Invasion Of Italy In an attempt to weaken his enemy, the King of Naples, Ludovico invites the French to invade Italy, granting them free passage through Milan. Though this invasion fails, the French return in 1499, turning on Ludovico and taking Milan, and opening an era of foreign competition for Italian land. 1503: Pope Julius II Assumes The Papal Throne The ascension of Pope Julius II begins the Roman Golden Age, during which the city and Papacy both prosper. Julius II reverses the trend of moral degradation in the Papacy and takes great steps in the rebuilding of Rome. 1513: Pope Leo X Succeeds Julius II Pope Leo X, the son of Lorenzo de Medici, continues the trend of the Golden Age, proving himself a gifted administrator and intelligent patron of the arts. Rome prospers. 1513: Niccolo Machiavelli Publishes The Prince Often considered the most influential political book of all time, The Prince outlines the argument that it is better for a ruler to be feared than loved. 1517: The Reformation Movement Begins Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of a church in Wittenburg, Germany, igniting a movement which provokes an enormous split in the Roman Catholic Church. 1519: Leonardo Da Vinci Dies Leonardo, perhaps the most remarkable individual of the Renaissance, dies in France, having established himself as a painter, sculptor, engineer, and scientist. 1523: Pope Clement VII Ascends To The Throne Pope Clement VII comes to power in difficult times, following Pope Leo X. He soon proves himself an incompetent politician, and his poor decisions lead to the sack of Rome. May 6, 1527: The Sack Of Rome After Pope Clement VII refuses to grant the imperial army a ransom, it attacks the city of Rome, taking the city in just over twelve hours. The sack of Rome symbolizes the downfall of Renaissance Italy, much of which is subjugated to Imperial-Spanish rule by the settlement of Bologna in 1530. Political Situation The Arts Catholic Church & Popes The Medici Download JPG Download JPG
Session 5

Introductory lecture

Between the fifth and fourteenth centuries (CE) Europe forgot the glory days of the Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire had gradually descended into political decay in the last 200 years of its existence as the rapid turnover of Emperors, the constant border skirmishes and wars, gradual economic decline and the impossibility of imposing practical government over such a large domain had all contributed to its enfeeblement. After 400CE the formidable Roman administrative centers in Italy shrank into small towns, their impressive buildings often robbed for bricks and stones and their suburbs decayed. Some of these sites would reemerge as small independent city states as the millennium approached, surrounded by rural estates with peasant farmers providing simple produce for limited areas. Various types of governments ruled: some republics, some oligarchies and some dictatorships where particular ruling families competed for the right to govern. In the early Middle Ages prosperity and trade increased; towns built city walls to protect themselves against attacks from their neighbours. The merchant class emerged as Mediterranean trade increased and by the 1300s CE they were acquiring considerable wealth. Some historians argue that the Middle Ages were far more prosperous for all classes of society than we have formerly believed. Prosperity Poverty Middle Ages A loose glue of religion overlaid their differences. The Papacy remained at the center of the Catholic religion firstly in Rome, a city now in ruins. Political differences split the Papacy and two Popes supported by different political factions emerged. In 1305 the stronger papal contender established his seat at Avignon in France. Avignon became a rich cultural center of Europe for the next 100 years until in 1420, under Pope Martin V, the papacy returned to Rome. The wealth this brought to Rome enabled a rebuilding program to start which was accelerated by the efforts of Pope Nicholas V who undertook many significant building projects turning Rome into a Renaissance city. As the secular ruler of European monarchies, the position of Holy Roman Emperor was established in the ninth century by the Carolingian dynasty. By the Middle Ages the power of the ruler who held this title was clearer. He was the chief amongst equals of the European monarchs but increasingly involved himself in power struggles with the Pope. He was as powerful as the armies of mercenaries he could afford to defend his position. Likewise the Pope had to raise armies to defend his power base of territories who were loyal to him. During the Renaissance the two titular heads divided loyalties between them, the Guelfs supporting the Pope and the Ghibellines supporting the Holy Roman Emperor. A number of wars were fought on the Italian peninsular and even in particular city states like Florence both parties vied for internal control of the government of the city. Guelfs Ghibellines

The Rise of the Medici in Florence.

In1397 Ghiberti Medici, one of the rising class of rich merchant bankers, moves to Florence as the papal banker. He is succeeded by Cosimo in 1429, who greatly extends the banking business until it becomes the premier bank in Europe. He consolidates the family power in Florence and like his father gives generous patronage to the Arts and the creation of grand public buildings. His long period of control comes to an end in 1464, when his grandson Lorenzo controls the town and becomes known throughout Europe for his patronage of the arts. His power is contested by the Guelf faction in Florence who, with the approval of the Pope, attempt to assassinate him in the cathedral when his family was attending mass in 1478. Known as the Pazzi Conspiracy, it fails when the Medici supporters storm the cathedral to rescue the family. Lorenzo escaped but his brother is killed in the melee. The Pope exiles Lorenzo from Florence in the aftermath, but Lorenzo returns with increased support in Florence until his death in 1492. Lorenzo the Magnificent According to the historian Francesco Guicciardini’s apt definition, Lorenzo’s regime was “that of a benevolent tyrant in a constitutional republic.” It was, moreover, a tyranny tempered by the festivals that Florentines always loved passionately: carnivals, balls, tournaments, weddings, and princely receptions.

Renaissance and the arts - a cultural revolution.

More than anything else, the Renaissance in Italy was a rediscovery of the arts of the Ancient World. Sponsored by the wealthy in Italy, the arts flourished in the sixteenth century reintroducing the scholarly world to ancient philosophy, literature, sculpture and architecture. This enabled a great flourishing of these pursuits as contemporary arts practitioners absorbed the lessons from the past but then gave them their own modern interpretations and extended their range. Video: Ideas of the Renaissance (18 minutes).

Discussion:

The video glorifies the achievements of the Renaissance but decries the lack Renaissance ideals and arts in modern society. Is this a fair comparison? The Renaissance arts have mostly remained the ideal of wealthy elites such as European aristocrats in the eighteen and nineteen centuries, who took the ‘Grand Tour’ of European antiquity sites and brought back extravagant items to decorate their stately homes. What can the Renaissance offer societies in the twenty first century?

Citations:

Texts

Want to read more? Check out some of these sites. 1. Renaissance Timeline Citation: Sparknotes, 2019, Barnes and Noble bookshops, date retrieved 8/4/2019, Italian Renaissance Summary: 1330 – 1550, <https://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/renaissance1/timeline/> 2. Summary of Italian Renaissance changes [a good brief introduction. May help flesh out Timeline] Citation: History.com editors, 2/11/2018, Italian Renaissance, date retrieved 8/4/2019, <https://www.history.com/topics/renaissance/italian-renaissance> 3. History Italian Renaissance longer summary but more detail. Citation: New World Encyclopedia authors, Date of last revision: 24 April 2008 16:33 UTC, Italian Renaissance, date retrieved: 8 April 2019 03:55 UTC, <: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Italian_Renaissance&oldid=696761>, pageID: 696761. 4. Cynthia Kosso and Anne Scott, 2012, Brepolis OnLine, Poverty and Prosperity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://www.brepolsonline.net/doi/book/10.1484/M.ASMAR-EB.6.09070802050003050300030201 Access various essays in the book. 5. Editors, 2011, Encyclopedia Britannica, Martin V, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Martin_(popes) 6. Tommaso Parentucelli, 2017, New Advent Encycopedia, Pope Nicholas V, date retrieved 24/4/201, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11058a.htm 7. Wikipedia contributors, 2019, Holy Roman Emperor, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Emperor, ID 890774107. 8. Wikipedia contributors, 2019, Guelfs and Ghibellines, date retrieved 24/4/19, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guelphs_and_Ghibellines&oldid=893030861, ID: 893030861 9. Florence Inferno contributors, 2017, Lorenzo the Magnificent, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://www.florenceinferno.com/lorenzo-the-magnificent/ This is a brief summary of his life. For more detailed information see the Wikipedia article and its bibliography.

Videos.

1. Sagan Renaissance in Italy 20 minutes Karl Sagan American and brief. Citation: Karl Sagan, created 19/11/2015, Mr Sagan’s World History Course, Renaissance in Italy, date retrieved 8/4/2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHdOeiqj_Wc > 2. Use this link in the text to videos Ideas of the Renaissance Citation: School of Life, 6/11/2015, History of Ideas: The Renaissance, date retrieved 8/4/2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fI1OeMmwYjU> 3. Paula Finlan Stanford Uni Beginning of Renaissance Citation: Stanford University USA, Professor Paula Finlan,14/12/2015, How the Renaissance Began, ORG, date retrieved 13/4/19, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sY7ZpGriNZA 4. Prof John Garton Clark Uni Leonardo da Vinci Citation: Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Professor John Garton, 3/1/2017, Renaissance Italy in the Time of Leonardo da Vinci, date retrieved 13/4/2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZj0t8vV94w

Lecture 5 Renaissance: The rediscovery of Greek and Roman Culture

Handout of Renaissance Timeline to assist untangling the Politics, Church issues, Medici and the Arts.
5 5
australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Presenter Meg Dillon
Session 5

Lecture 5 Renaissance: The rediscov-

ery of Greek and Roman Culture

Political Situation                    The Arts Catholic Church & Popes    The Medici

Renaissance Timeline

Handout of Renaissance Timeline to assist untangling the Politics, Church issues, Medici and the Arts.
Download JPG Download JPG

Introductory lecture

Between the fifth and fourteenth centuries (CE) Europe forgot the glory days of the Roman Empire. The Eastern Roman Empire had gradually descended into political decay in the last 200 years of its existence as the rapid turnover of Emperors, the constant border skirmishes and wars, gradual economic decline and the impossibility of imposing practical government over such a large domain had all contributed to its enfeeblement. After 400CE the formidable Roman administrative centers in Italy shrank into small towns, their impressive buildings often robbed for bricks and stones and their suburbs decayed. Some of these sites would reemerge as small independent city states as the millennium approached, surrounded by rural estates with peasant farmers providing simple produce for limited areas. Various types of governments ruled: some republics, some oligarchies and some dictatorships where particular ruling families competed for the right to govern. In the early Middle Ages prosperity and trade increased; towns built city walls to protect themselves against attacks from their neighbours. The merchant class emerged as Mediterranean trade increased and by the 1300s CE they were acquiring considerable wealth. Some historians argue that the Middle Ages were far more prosperous for all classes of society than we have formerly believed. Prosperity Poverty Middle Ages A loose glue of religion overlaid their differences. The Papacy remained at the center of the Catholic religion firstly in Rome, a city now in ruins. Political differences split the Papacy and two Popes supported by different political factions emerged. In 1305 the stronger papal contender established his seat at Avignon in France. Avignon became a rich cultural center of Europe for the next 100 years until in 1420, under Pope Martin V, the papacy returned to Rome. The wealth this brought to Rome enabled a rebuilding program to start which was accelerated by the efforts of Pope Nicholas V who undertook many significant building projects turning Rome into a Renaissance city. As the secular ruler of European monarchies, the position of Holy Roman Emperor was established in the ninth century by the Carolingian dynasty. Holy Roman Emporer By the Middle Ages the power of the ruler who held this title was clearer. He was the chief amongst equals of the European monarchs but increasingly involved himself in power struggles with the Pope. He was as powerful as the armies of mercenaries he could afford to defend his position. Likewise the Pope had to raise armies to defend his power base of territories who were loyal to him. During the Renaissance the two titular heads divided loyalties between them, the Guelfs supporting the Pope and the Ghibellines supporting the Holy Roman Emperor. A number of wars were fought on the Italian peninsular and even in particular city states like Florence both parties vied for internal control of the government of the city. Guelfs Ghibellines

The Rise of the Medici in Florence.

In1397 Ghiberti Medici, one of the rising class of rich merchant bankers, moves to Florence as the papal banker. He is succeeded by Cosimo in 1429, who greatly extends the banking business until it becomes the premier bank in Europe. He consolidates the family power in Florence and like his father gives generous patronage to the Arts and the creation of grand public buildings. His long period of control comes to an end in 1464, when his grandson Lorenzo controls the town and becomes known throughout Europe for his patronage of the arts. His power is contested by the Guelf faction in Florence who, with the approval of the Pope, attempt to assassinate him in the cathedral when his family was attending mass in 1478. Known as the Pazzi Conspiracy, it fails when the Medici supporters storm the cathedral to rescue the family. Lorenzo escaped but his brother is killed in the melee. The Pope exiles Lorenzo from Florence in the aftermath, but Lorenzo returns with increased support in Florence until his death in 1492. Lorenzo the Magnificent According to the historian Francesco Guicciardini’s apt definition, Lorenzo’s regime was “that of a benevolent tyrant in a constitutional republic.” It was, moreover, a tyranny tempered by the festivals that Florentines always loved passionately: carnivals, balls, tournaments, weddings, and princely receptions.

Renaissance and the arts - a cultural revolu-

tion.

More than anything else, the Renaissance in Italy was a rediscovery of the arts of the Ancient World. Sponsored by the wealthy in Italy, the arts flourished in the sixteenth century reintroducing the scholarly world to ancient philosophy, literature, sculpture and architecture. This enabled a great flourishing of these pursuits as contemporary arts practitioners absorbed the lessons from the past but then gave them their own modern interpretations and extended their range. Video: Ideas of the Renaissance (18 minutes).

Discussion:

The video glorifies the achievements of the Renaissance but decries the lack Renaissance ideals and arts in modern society. Is this a fair comparison? The Renaissance arts have mostly remained the ideal of wealthy elites such as European aristocrats in the eighteen and nineteen centuries, who took the ‘Grand Tour’ of European antiquity sites and brought back extravagant items to decorate their stately homes. What can the Renaissance offer societies in the twenty first century?

Citations:

Texts

Want to read more? Check out some of these sites. 1. Renaissance Timeline Citation: Sparknotes, 2019, Barnes and Noble bookshops, date retrieved 8/4/2019, Italian Renaissance Summary: 1330 – 1550, <https://www.sparknotes.com/history/european/renaiss ance1/timeline/> 2. Summary of Italian Renaissance changes [a good brief introduction. May help flesh out Timeline] Citation: History.com editors, 2/11/2018, Italian Renaissance, date retrieved 8/4/2019, <https://www.history.com/topics/renaissance/italian- renaissance> 3. History Italian Renaissance longer summary but more detail. Citation: New World Encyclopedia authors, Date of last revision: 24 April 2008 16:33 UTC, Italian Renaissance, date retrieved: 8 April 2019 03:55 UTC, <: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title =Italian_Renaissance&oldid=696761>, pageID: 696761. 4. Cynthia Kosso and Anne Scott, 2012, Brepolis OnLine, Poverty and Prosperity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://www.brepolsonline.net/doi/book/10.1484/M.ASMA R-EB.6.09070802050003050300030201 Access various essays in the book. 5. Editors, 2011, Encyclopedia Britannica, Martin V, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_ Britannica/Martin_(popes) 6. Tommaso Parentucelli, 2017, New Advent Encycopedia, Pope Nicholas V, date retrieved 24/4/201, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11058a.htm 7. Wikipedia contributors, 2019, Holy Roman Emperor, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Emperor, ID 890774107. 8. Wikipedia contributors, 2019, Guelfs and Ghibellines, date retrieved 24/4/19, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Guelphs_and_ Ghibellines&oldid=893030861, ID: 893030861 9. Florence Inferno contributors, 2017, Lorenzo the Magnificent, date retrieved 24/4/2019, https://www.florenceinferno.com/lorenzo-the- magnificent/ This is a brief summary of his life. For more detailed information see the Wikipedia article and its bibliography.

Videos.

1. Sagan Renaissance in Italy 20 minutes Karl Sagan American and brief. Citation: Karl Sagan, created 19/11/2015, Mr Sagan’s World History Course, Renaissance in Italy, date retrieved 8/4/2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GHdOeiqj_Wc > 2. Use this link in the text to videos Ideas of the Renaissance Citation: School of Life, 6/11/2015, History of Ideas: The Renaissance, date retrieved 8/4/2019, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fI1OeMmwYjU> 3. Paula Finlan Stanford Uni Beginning of Renaissance Citation: Stanford University USA, Professor Paula Finlan,14/12/2015, How the Renaissance Began, ORG , date retrieved 13/4/19, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sY7ZpGriNZA 4. Prof John Garton Clark Uni Leonardo da Vinci Citation: Museum of Fine Arts Boston, Professor John Garton, 3/1/2017, Renaissance Italy in the Time of Leonardo da Vinci, date retrieved 13/4/2017, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yZj0t8vV94w