australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Session 4
4

Ancient Rome: Republic V. Empire

Recapitulation:

So far we have seen: Two official languages existed in Ancient Rome : Latin and Greek. Romans were culturally indebted to many aspects of Greek culture including Athenian art, theatre, philosophy, science and political theories. Romans built on these foundations to extend and Romanize many aspects of Greek culture. Many new cultural products were created in literature, theatre, political science and science. In art, wall painting and architecture catered to the elites and different religious bodies. With Sculpture the romans mainly copied Greek bronzes and many examples of these are the only copies of famous Greek bronzes that have been found. The extreme wealth of portions of the Roman elites fostered a huge expansion of production of all sorts of luxury goods to cater for their needs. Mary Beard in her three documentaries Meet the Romans created a picture of life in Rome in the early Empire period, when it had expanded its population to one million. o A city of migrants and slaves from all over the Empire o A city where public buildings and facilities enabled ordinary Romans to Live a lot of their lives in public places : food stalls and taverns, public baths and lavatories, public entertainment in Triumphs, chariot racing and entertainments at theatres and the Colosseum. o Life inside the houses of the poor and middle classes.

Ancient Rome; One million

Mary Beard made the following points about this city that show how culturally diverse it was and how easier it was for ordinary citizens to be upwardly mobile than many ancient Greek city states. VIDEO: All Roads lead to Rome Rome at its height of one million people was a highly multi-cultural city. Everyone came from somewhere else. Slaves brought back from successful conquests and free immigrants looking for opportunity both flooded into Rome. Slavery appeared less onerous than slavery in Greece. Many slaves learned a trade from their master, worked in his or her factory or business, and often were freed or bought their freedom. Many former slaves became both successful and citizens. Despite this slavery always induces abuses against the basic human rights of people. As the death rate was higher than the birth rate, Rome needed to encourage migrants to keep the population stable. Rome was a malarial cit , which was a major cause of death. Elites, including the Emperors, could be from different parts of the empire , or even former slaves who had gained citizenship. Port of Ostia was extended twice to facilitate the arrival of food and raw materials that the city needed. For the first time Romans identified themselves by their profession or job. The city was large enough to require specialization in the workforce: hairdressers, carpenters, bakers, luxury clothes manufacturers, dyers, pepper merchants, warehouse workers, fish mongers accounts managers etc etc. Beard proposes an interesting hypothesis about the colosseum and its entertainments. She claims its purpose was to show Romans how exotic the various parts of the Empire was. The different types of gladiators’ armor were unlike military armor: it was fanciful and exaggerated and meant to entertain. Gladiators were expensive to train so their handlers wanted to avoid injuring or killing them. She compares gladiatorial combat with modern day wrestling – highly choreographed encounters meant to only suggest danger.

1.

FEEDING One Million people: the Port of Ostia.

Introduction by presenter: Food was shipped to Rome from all parts of the Empire. Many of its conquered territories were recruited to produce the huge amounts of grain required to feed the masses. Corn was used as an incentive for Migrants to work towards getting Roman citizenship. All citizens got a free monthly ration of grain. About one third of the city participated in this. It was not distributed to the poor as relief, but enough grain was brought in to enable them to buy their supplies. A hungry city is a dangerous city so it was essential to maintain the food supply chain including other basic essential oil, beans, vegetables, wine, fish. To do this efficiently the port city of Ostia near Rome was engineered to include new wharves , warehouses and canals to receive, store and shift goods into the city. Ostia was extended many times, but two major extensions were built by the Emperors Claudius( 42 - 64 CE) and Trajen (106 -113CE) Group watches the following videos: 1. Port of Ostia. 5 min video showing many sites in this port city, baths, shops, lavs, apartments warehouses, temples. Ancient History Enyclopedia – Ostia text & video Ostia Roman Port 2. Daily Life at Ostia Port, 8.26 mins. Institute for Roman Culture. video Daily Life in Ostia 3. Computer reconstruction of Ostia. 2.73 minutes video Computer reconstruction Ostia

2.

Republic v. Empire Mini lecture by presenter.

In general historians categorize the Republic as more moral, austere and democratic than the Empire which is seen as decadent, badly governed and a series of dictatorships by many different Emperors. Greeks warned that all types of government systems become corrupt and decay, changing between tyranny, kingship and oligarchy. The democratic experiment the Greeks introduced around the fifth century BCE also suffered this fate, lasting only about 200 years. During this period Rome was vigorously expanding its territories by conquests. The continuous expansion was necessary to continue increasing the slave population which fueled the economic and military growth of the republic. Slave trade was an essential part of the labour force throughout the period of the ancient world kingdoms. It was regarded as normal and necessary. Rome partially modified it to enable more former slaves buy their freedom and even become citizens. Roman Republic introduced also around the fifth century BCE was a new model of government, partly based on Greek democratic concepts, but altered to make it more difficult for one person or group to take control. It started as a type of oligarchy of the elite citizens (Gentes) that later included in the third century BCE an assembly for the Plebians (middle class citizens). After the Republic ended in 27 BC making Octavian (Augustus) the first Emperor, The Senate and consuls continued to exist but held less power than the Emperor. United States modelled its first republican government on aspects of the Roman model, with substantial refinements.

Roman Republican model

We have already seen that the Greeks introduced the proto-democratic model of Assembly, Executive (Boule) and Judicial system. The interconnectedness of these three essentials of Western Government have remained common throughout most subsequent periods of Western development, although the laws governing access to any of the three have varied considerably. Can we really call the Roman republic an experiment in democracy? Discussion.

Why did the Republic fail around 27 BCE?

The size of the Roman Republic made it ungovernable. Remember that communications over its vast area were primitive and slow. Sometimes it took months for an order from Rome to be delivered. Economic, social and political forces couldn’t be managed by the Republican leadership. The quality of the Consuls was not always adequate. Not all had the necessary skills for the task. Both political and military leaders took up these positions at different times. Their tenure of one year may have been too short for them to develop the strategies and skills they needed. Short tenure was initially designed to stop one person from becoming a dictator. Series of wars, attacks on Rome weakened the Republic over several hundred years. A general, Julius Caesar assumed the title “dictator for life” before he was assassinated. Octavian became to successor after winning a series of political and military battles against Mark Antony and Lepidus.

How did Rome manage to be governed for 400 years by Emperors, many of whom had

short terms before they were deposed, or were unfit to hold office?

Discussion

Emperors governed as dictators. Many had short rules, some were from other parts of the Empire and many were generals or supported by the military which was one of the largest social forces in the empire. Lots of gossip surrounded deposed or assassinated Emperors. Useful for sycophants to traduce the previous Emperor and so curry favour with the new one. Gaius Caesar (Caligula), Nero and Tiberius exited a lot of gossip about cruel, and decadent behavior. Historians are re evaluating the terms of these emporers and looking more closely at the benefits they conferred on the empire. Augustus [Octavian], the first Emperor, assumed a number of powers for life which continued to be conferred on his successors: he had o Supreme authority over provincial governors o Supreme authority over the tribunes of the Plebs o He could call an Assembly to enact new laws o Could veto the actions of magistrates whom he later had the power to appoint o He controlled imperial patronage. No-one could run for office without his consent. o He maintained power with the protection of the Pretorian Guard, his personal military body guards. Of the 12 first Emperors, only four would die naturally. 4 were assassinated, 2 committed suicide, two murdered by poison or suffocation. Supreme power brought supreme risk. Despite wars on the borders, several revolts, and a fast turnover of supreme rulers, some historians believe that the populace was mostly happy as long as they had a good food supply, had games for entertainments and did not have their taxes raised. Further research may question this hypothesis. Unless you resided in Rome (or Ravenna or Constantinople), most people in the Empire had nothing to do with the Emperor or his Court intrigues, and lived in relative peace under the Pax Romana for at least the first 200 years of the empire. Regional governors were more likely to influence their conditions. During the many troubled times of the Empire, the people did not try to return to representative Republican government, Some historians maintain that fear caused the people to crave strong leaders in preference to a proto-democratic option. Augustus himself explained the transition from republic to empire very differently. Although Romans had long held that political domination by one individual represented the opposite of liberty, Augustus framed his autocratic control of the Roman state as a sort of democratic act. In Augustus’s conception, he had restored liberty (libertas) to Rome by first delivering the Roman world from the senators who had seized power by murdering Julius Caesar and by later eliminating the threat of foreign control posed by Cleopatra and her lover Marc Antony. Liberty, as Augustus and his supporters saw it, meant the freedom from domestic unrest and foreign interference that came only with the security and political stability that Augustus provided. Augustus’s liberty meant that Roman property rights remained valid. It opened economic opportunities to new segments of the Roman population. And it took control of the city and its empire away from an increasingly corrupt senatorial elite whose mismanagement had led to civil war. In the 20s BC, many Romans agreed with Augustus that liberty could not exist if insecurity persisted. They came to believe that freedom from oppression could only exist in a polity controlled by one man. Text: Rome Traded Freedom for Autocracy at https://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2019/01/11/rome-america-edward-watts-mortal-republic

Why did the Western Roman Empire fail round 400 CE?

Invasions of barbarian tribes. These were constant and happened in a number of different waves as Eastern tribes, Germanic tribes and Huns responded to over population and famine by creating mass movements into the Roman Empire looking for land on which to settle. Some moved through the Roman regions and settled in the far eastern parts of the Empire [Spain, France] In some instances Rome was besieged and sacked a s they passed through. An Eastern Empire and a Western Empire were created around 285CE by Emporer Diocletian to try and solve the problem that the size of the empire was ungovernable. The Western Empire, in which Rome was situated was mostly rural farmin land and less wealthy that the East Empire at Constantinople which had trading, mining and manufacturing wealth. Growing social divisions in the West Empire: o Official cruelty, supporting extortion and corruption, may also have become more commonplace. o While the scale, complexity, and violence of government were unmatched, the Emperors lost control over their whole realm insofar as that control came increasingly to be wielded by anyone who paid for it. o Meanwhile, the richest senatorial families, immune from most taxation, engrossed more and more of the available wealth and income, while also becoming divorced from any tradition of military excellence. One scholar identifies a great increase in the purchasing power of gold, two and a half fold from 274 to the later fourth century, which may be an index of growing economic inequality between a gold-rich elite and a cash-poor peasantry. o Within the late Roman military, many recruits and even officers had barbarian origins, and soldiers are recorded as using possibly-barbarian rituals such as elevating a claimant on shields. Some scholars have seen this as an indication of weakness; others disagree, seeing neither barbarian recruits nor new rituals as causing any problem with the effectiveness or loyalty of the army. o As further conquests of territory decreased, fewer captives could be brought back as slaves. The economy depended on them to keep growing. Rome was sacked so many times that the Emperor Honorius moved the capital from Rome to Ravenna in 402CE as it was easier to defend this small city surrounded by swamps. The last Western Emperor: The reasons for Orestes' decision to crown his son Romulas as a puppet-emperor, rather than become Emperor himself, are somewhat unclear. However, his son' sposition was not constitutional as he had not been recognised by the Emperor at Constantinople, in whose eyes a former Emperor,Nepos ,was still the sole Augustus of the West. Romulus' short reign ended on September 4, 476 CE, when Odoacer, head of the Germanic Foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes, and deposed Romulus. Odoacer sent Romulus Augustulus to Campania in exile or retirement, after which he disappears from the historical record. Discussion about the demise of the West Empire. Show part of the video by Mary Beard on Gaius Caesar (Caligula). Video: Mary Beard. Caligula Imperial period. Mary argues that despite his cruel behaviour, much exaggerated gossip made him seem worse than he may have been.

Video and text List:

Session Four: Rome: Republic and Empire

Port of Ostia

Videos 1. Port of Ostia. 5 min. Video showing many sites in this port city, baths, shops, lavs, apartments warehouses, temples. Ancient History Enyclopedia – Ostia. Text & Video Ostia Roman Port 2. Imagining Portus, 14.26 mins. British School at Rome, Cambridge Uni. 2015 lecture. Video Imagining Portus 3. Daily Life at Ostia Port, 8.26 mins. Institute for Roman Culture. Video Daily Life in Ostia 4. Computer reconstruction of Ostia. 2.73 mins Video Computer Reconstruction Ostia Texts: 1. History of Port of Ostia. Quite comprehensive from earliest to later times. Text History of port of Ostia. 2. Civil Engineering Port of Ostia. Text Canal Infrastructure Ostia

The Roman Republic:

1. Extensive material from Wiki including additional reading lists. Retrieved 12/3/19. View Text: Roman Republic WIKI 2. Ancient Rome – The Roman Republic. Short article with general points. View Good starting point. Retrieved 12/3/19 3. Encyclopedia Britannica, Good brief general summary. Retrieved 12/3.19 View 4. The Khan Academy Roman Republic, Govt , Retrieved 12/3/19. Text & video: View Probably the best introductory text. The 9 minute video

The Roman Empire:

5. Mary Beard Emperor Caligula , Represents the excesses of the Empire [No.4] View Could be useful as example of Imperial excesses. 58 minutes. No succession strategies led to violence etc. Was the republic a more moral system of govt? Shows the corruption of power with dictatorship [Emperor] Were all Roman emporers bad? 6. Republic v Empire Rome text: View Looks like a clear and good summary. 7. Encyclopedia of Ancient History, Roman Emperor. View 8. Rome Traded Freedom for Autocracy, text View 9. Very slight text, but supports the case that most Emperors weren’t as crazy as gossip and Roman historians made out. All had series of advisors and officials who actually ran the Empire. View 10. Fall of West Roman empire just a map. 10 min video map. View Decline of West Roman Empire Use this map while talking about Republic v Empire 11. Fall of West Roman empire video 13 mins plus pics. View British version. Show from 7 min point to end. Summary post barbarian invasions.
4
australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Presenter Meg Dillon
Session 4

Ancient Rome: Republic V.

Empire

Recapitulation:

So far we have seen: Two official languages existed in Ancient Rome : Latin and Greek. Romans were culturally indebted to many aspects of Greek culture including Athenian art, theatre, philosophy, science and political theories. Romans built on these foundations to extend and Romanize many aspects of Greek culture. Many new cultural products were created in literature, theatre, political science and science. In art, wall painting and architecture catered to the elites and different religious bodies. With Sculpture the romans mainly copied Greek bronzes and many examples of these are the only copies of famous Greek bronzes that have been found. The extreme wealth of portions of the Roman elites fostered a huge expansion of production of all sorts of luxury goods to cater for their needs. Mary Beard in her three documentaries Meet the Romans created a picture of life in Rome in the early Empire period, when it had expanded its population to one million. o A city of migrants and slaves from all over the Empire o A city where public buildings and facilities enabled ordinary Romans to Live a lot of their lives in public places : food stalls and taverns, public baths and lavatories, public entertainment in Triumphs, chariot racing and entertainments at theatres and the Colosseum. o Life inside the houses of the poor and middle classes.

Ancient Rome; One million

Mary Beard made the following points about this city that show how culturally diverse it was and how easier it was for ordinary citizens to be upwardly mobile than many ancient Greek city states. VIDEO: All Roads lead to Rome Rome at its height of one million people was a highly multi-cultural city. Everyone came from somewhere else. Slaves brought back from successful conquests and free immigrants looking for opportunity both flooded into Rome. Slavery appeared less onerous than slavery in Greece. Many slaves learned a trade from their master, worked in his or her factory or business, and often were freed or bought their freedom. Many former slaves became both successful and citizens. Despite this slavery always induces abuses against the basic human rights of people. As the death rate was higher than the birth rate, Rome needed to encourage migrants to keep the population stable. Rome was a malarial cit , which was a major cause of death. Elites, including the Emperors, could be from different parts of the empire , or even former slaves who had gained citizenship. Port of Ostia was extended twice to facilitate the arrival of food and raw materials that the city needed. For the first time Romans identified themselves by their profession or job. The city was large enough to require specialization in the workforce: hairdressers, carpenters, bakers, luxury clothes manufacturers, dyers, pepper merchants, warehouse workers, fish mongers accounts managers etc etc. Beard proposes an interesting hypothesis about the colosseum and its entertainments. She claims its purpose was to show Romans how exotic the various parts of the Empire was. The different types of gladiators’ armor were unlike military armor: it was fanciful and exaggerated and meant to entertain. Gladiators were expensive to train so their handlers wanted to avoid injuring or killing them. She compares gladiatorial combat with modern day wrestling – highly choreographed encounters meant to only suggest danger.

1.

FEEDING One Million people: the Port of Ostia.

Introduction by presenter: Food was shipped to Rome from all parts of the Empire. Many of its conquered territories were recruited to produce the huge amounts of grain required to feed the masses. Corn was used as an incentive for Migrants to work towards getting Roman citizenship. All citizens got a free monthly ration of grain. About one third of the city participated in this. It was not distributed to the poor as relief, but enough grain was brought in to enable them to buy their supplies. A hungry city is a dangerous city so it was essential to maintain the food supply chain including other basic essential oil, beans, vegetables, wine, fish. To do this efficiently the port city of Ostia near Rome was engineered to include new wharves , warehouses and canals to receive, store and shift goods into the city. Ostia was extended many times, but two major extensions were built by the Emperors Claudius( 42 - 64CE) and Trajen (106 -113CE) Group watches the following videos: 1. Port of Ostia. 5 min video showing many sites in this port city, baths, shops, lavs, apartments warehouses, temples. Ancient History Enyclopedia – Ostia text & video Ostia Roman Port 2. Daily Life at Ostia Port , 8.26 mins. Institute for Roman Culture. video Daily Life in Ostia 3. Computer reconstruction of Ostia. 2.73 mins video Computer reconstruction Ostia

2.

Republic v. Empire Mini lecture by presenter.

In general historians categorize the Republic as more moral, austere and democratic than the Empire which is seen as decadent, badly governed and a series of dictatorships by many different Emperors. Greeks warned that all types of government systems become corrupt and decay, changing between tyranny, kingship and oligarchy. The democratic experiment the Greeks introduced around the fifth century BCE, also suffered this fate, lasting only about 200 years. During this period Rome was vigorously expanding its territories by conquests. The continuous expansion was necessary to continue increasing the slave population which fueled the economic and military growth of the republic. Slave trade was an essential part of the labour force throughout the period of the ancient world kingdoms. It was regarded as normal and necessary. Rome partially modified it to enable more former slaves buy their freedom and even become citizens. Roman Republic , introduced around the fifth century BCE, was a new model of government, partly based on Greek democratic concepts, but altered to make it more difficult for one person or group to take control. It started as a type of oligarchy of the elite citizens (Gentes) that later, around the third century BCE, included an assembly for the Plebians (middle class citizens). After the Republic ended in 27 BC making Octavian (Augustus) the first Emperor, The Senate and consuls continued to exist but held less power than the Emperor. United States modelled its first republican government on aspects of the Roman model, but with substantial refinements.

Roman Republican model

We have already seen that the Greeks introduced the proto- democratic model of Assembly, Executive (Boule) and Judicial system. The interconnectedness of these three essentials of Western Government have remained common throughout most subsequent periods of Western development, although the laws governing access to any of the three have varied considerably. Can we really call the Roman republic an experiment in democracy? Discussion.

Why did the Republic fail around 27BCE?

The size of the Roman Republic made it ungovernable. Remember that communications over its vast area were primitive and slow. Sometimes it took months for an order from Rome to be delivered. Economic, social and political forces couldn’t be managed by the Republican leadership. The quality of the Consuls was not always adequate. Not all had the necessary skills for the task. Both political and military leaders took up these positions at different times. Their tenure of one year may have been too short for them to develop the strategies and skills they needed. Short tenure was initially designed to stop one person from becoming a dictator. Series of wars, attacks on Rome weakened the Republic over several hundred years. A general, Julius Caesar assumed the title “dictator for life” before he was assassinated. Octavian became to successor after winning a series of political and military battles against Mark Antony and Lepidus.

How did Rome manage to be governed for

400 years by Emperors, many of whom had

short terms before they were deposed, or

were unfit to hold office? Discussion.

Emperors governed as dictators. Many had short rules, some were from other parts of the Empire and many were generals or supported by the military which was one of the largest social forces in the empire. Lots of gossip surrounded deposed or assassinated Emperors. Useful for sycophants to traduce the previous Emperor and so curry favour with the new one. Gaius Caesar (Caligula), Nero and Tiberius exited a lot of gossip about cruel, and decadent behavior. Historians are re evaluating the terms of these emporers and looking more closely at the benefits they conferred on the empire. Augustus [Octavian], the first Emperor, assumed a number of powers for life which continued to be conferred on his successors: he had o Supreme authority over provincial governors o Supreme authority over the tribunes of the Plebs o He could call an Assembly to enact new laws o Could veto the actions of magistrates whom he later had the power to appoint o He controlled imperial patronage. No-one could run for office without his consent. o He maintained power with the protection of the Pretorian Guard, his personal military body guards. Of the 12 first Emperors, only four would die naturally. 4 were assassinated, 2 committed suicide, two murdered by poison or suffocation. Supreme power brought supreme risk. Despite wars on the borders, several revolts, and a fast turnover of supreme rulers, some historians believe that the populace was mostly happy as long as they had a good food supply, had games for entertainments and did not have their taxes raised. Further research may question this hypothesis. Unless you resided in Rome (or Ravenna or Constantinople), most people in the Empire had nothing to do with the Emperor or his Court intrigues, and lived in relative peace under the Pax Romana for at least the first 200 years of the empire. Regional governors were more likely to influence their conditions. During the many troubled times of the Empire, the people did not try to return to representative Republican government. Some historians maintain that fear caused the people to crave strong leaders in preference to a proto-democratic option. Augustus himself explained the transition from republic to empire very differently. Although Romans had long held that political domination by one individual represented the opposite of liberty, Augustus framed his autocratic control of the Roman state as a sort of democratic act. In Augustus’s conception, he had restored liberty (libertas) to Rome by first delivering the Roman world from the senators who had seized power by murdering Julius Caesar and by later eliminating the threat of foreign control posed by Cleopatra and her lover Marc Antony. Liberty, as Augustus and his supporters saw it, meant the freedom from domestic unrest and foreign interference that came only with the security and political stability that Augustus provided. Augustus’s liberty meant that Roman property rights remained valid. It opened economic opportunities to new segments of the Roman population. And it took control of the city and its empire away from an increasingly corrupt senatorial elite whose mismanagement had led to civil war. In the 20s BC, many Romans agreed with Augustus that liberty could not exist if insecurity persisted. They came to believe that freedom from oppression could only exist in a polity controlled by one man. , text Rome Traded Freedom for Autocracy at https://www.wbur.org/onpoint/2019/01/11/rome-america- edward-watts-mortal-republic

Why did the Western Roman Empire fail

round 400 AD?

Invasions of barbarian tribes. These were constant and happened in a number of different waves as Eastern tribes, Germanic tribes and Huns responded to over population and famine by creating mass movements into the Roman Empire looking for land on which to settle. Some moved through the Roman regions and settled in the far eastern parts of the Empire [Spain, France] In some instances Rome was besieged and sacked a s they passed through. An Eastern Empire and a Western Empire was created by Diocletian in 285CE, to try and solve the problem that the size of the empire was ungovernable. The Western Empire, in which Rome was situated, was mostly rural farming land and less wealthy that the East Empire at Constantinople which had trading, mining and manufacturing wealth. Growing social divisions in the West Empire: o Official cruelty, supporting extortion and corruption, may also have become more commonplace. o While the scale, complexity, and violence of government were unmatched, the Emperors lost control over their whole realm insofar as that control came increasingly to be wielded by anyone who paid for it. o Meanwhile, the richest senatorial families, immune from most taxation, engrossed more and more of the available wealth and income, while also becoming divorced from any tradition of military excellence. One scholar identifies a great increase in the purchasing power of gold, two and a half fold from 274 CE, to the later fourth century, which may be an index of growing economic inequality between a gold-rich elite and a cash-poor peasantry. o Within the late Roman military, many recruits and even officers had barbarian origins, and soldiers are recorded as using possibly-barbarian rituals such as elevating a claimant on shields. Some scholars have seen this as an indication of weakness; others disagree, seeing neither barbarian recruits nor new rituals as causing any problem with the effectiveness or loyalty of the army. o As further conquests of territory decreased, fewer captives could be brought back as slaves. The economy depended on them to keep growing. Rome was sacked so many times that the Emperor Honorius moved the capital from Rome to Ravenna in 402CE as it was easier to defend this small city surrounded by swamps. The last Western Emperor: The reasons for Orestes' decision to crown his son, Romulus, as a puppet-emperor, rather than become Emperor himself, are somewhat unclear. However, Romulus' position was not constitutional as he had not been recognised by the Emperor at Constantinople, in whose eyes the former Western Emporer Nepos ,was still the sole Augustus of the West. Romulus' short reign ended on September 4, 476CE when Odoacer, head of the Germanic Foederati in Italy, captured Ravenna, killed Orestes, and deposed Romulus. Odoacer sent Romulus Augustus to Campania in exile or retirement, after which he disappears from the historical record. Discussion about the demise of the West Empire. Show part of the video by Mary Beard on Gaius Caesar (Caligula). video. Mary Beard. Caligula Imperial period. Mary argues that despite his cruel behaviour, much exaggerated gossip made him seem worse than he may have been. END

Video and text List:

Session Four: Rome: Republic and Empire

Port of Ostia

Videos 1. Port of Ostia. 5 min. Video showing many sites in this port city, baths, shops, lavs, apartments warehouses, temples. Ancient History Enyclopedia – Ostia. Text & Video Ostia Roman Port 2. Imagining Portus, 14.26 mins. British School at Rome, Cambridge Uni. 2015 lecture. Video Imagining Portus 3. Daily Life at Ostia Port , 8.26 mins. Institute for Roman Culture. Video Daily Life in Ostia 4. Computer reconstruction of Ostia. 2.73 mins Video Computer Reconstruction Ostia Texts: 1. History of Port of Ostia. Quite comprehensive from earliest to later times. Text History of port of Ostia. 2. Civil Engineering Port of Ostia. Text Canal Infrastructure Ostia

The Roman Republic:

1. Extensive material from Wiki including additional reading lists. Retrieved 12/3/19. View Text: Roman Republic WIKI 2. Ancient Rome – The Roman Republic. Short article with general points. View Good starting point. Retrieved 12/3/19 3. Encyclopedia Britannica, Good brief general summary. Retrieved 12/3.19 View 4. The Khan Academy Roman Republic, Govt , Retrieved 12/3/19. Text & video: View Probably the best introductory text. The 9 minute video

The Roman Empire:

5. Mary Beard Emperor Caligula , Represents the excesses of the Empire [No.4] View Could be useful as example of Imperial excesses. 58 minutes. No succession strategies led to violence etc. Was the republic a more moral system of government? Shows the corruption of power with dictatorship [Emperor] Were all Roman emporers bad? 6. Republic v Empire Rome text: View Looks like a clear and good summary. 7. Encyclopedia of Ancient History, Roman Emperor. View 8. Rome Traded Freedom for Autocracy, text View 9. Very slight text, but supports the case that most Emperors weren’t as crazy as gossip and Roman historians made out. All had series of advisors and officials who actually ran the Empire. View 10. Fall of West Roman empire just a map. 10 min video map. View Decline of West Roman Empire Use this map while talking about Republic v Empire 11. Fall of West Roman empire video 13 mins plus pics. View British version. Show from 7 min point to end. Summary post barbarian invasions.