australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Session 3
3
So far we have seen: There was an unbroken connection between the ancient Mediterranean cultures for over 2000 years. Inventions, basic supplies, luxury items were traded. This connection was fostered by sea trade between the different cultures : Phonecams, Ancient Egypt [ a major power], The Minoans of Crete, various Greek islands and the Greek peninsular and colonies. In the background the Persian Empire [a major power] was rising and conquering all the middle east area of Mesopotamia.[ Syria, Iran, Iraq and further east into Afghanistan. Overland trading routes were established through the Persian Empire that made goods from these inland places available around the Mediterranean. Ancient Troy was a key port in [northern Turkey] that grew wealthy in this trade. This may have been a key reason for the separate Greek forces banding together to attack and destroy it in the 1300s BC. A series of catastrophes occurred in the 1100s that included a 300 year drought, increased warfare as different groups fought with their neighbours to gain scarce resources and an increased period of volcanic activity that destroyed Crete and Mycenae. o Central governments collapsed o Elites disappeared o Centralised economies collapsed Greece was invaded by the Doriens around 1000BC bringing with them the new religion of the sky gods – the Greek pantheon of Zeus/ Hera Athena, Aphrodite etc. They enslaved the local population and established their own separate cities that slowly evolved into the Greek city states that we know. About 800BC ‘Homer’ gathered the legends about the earlier times in the 1300-1100. And wrote about this age of gods and heroes in Iliad and the Odyssey. Continued warfare on the Greek peninsular, all cities trained their men to become soldiers to fight and defend. Athens defended Greece in 840BC against the Persian Empite at Thermopolae and the Straights of Salamis. Greek cities were ruled by Tyrants, Kings and Oligarchies during this long period to 600BC. Many cities changed from one form to another as corruption and decay set in , forcing the change. In 594 BC Solon established a new form of government, a proto-democracy or participation by all male citizens in forming an assembly, an executive council and a complex court system in Athens. [Exclusive, unstable and unpopular] Athenian social structure consisted of citizens, foreigners and slaves. Athens grew powerful and rich through trade and the wealth of their silver mines. It was the most important city in Greece and supported a cultural revolution in which philosophers and Art [pottery and sculpture] became pre eminent in the Ancient World.

Questions/Discussions

Athens and the development of European Culture

Athenian art, theatre and philosophy have resurfaced again and again in Western Civilization: sometimes lost for a few centuries, then re discovered. They are influential even today. We will look briefly at several short videos that trace the development of art in Greece. We will leave the issues of philosophy until we start to look at the Italian Renaissance and later. o Study of ethics Socrates, Plato. What is correct or moral behaviour? o Study of science – by looking at how the natural world functions – astronomy, engineering, medicine etc. Their achievements in art,( pottery and sculpture ) brought them real wealth and these goods were mass produced and traded. These were also the goods that captivated the Romans and caused the Romans to become expert copiers of the most famous Greek pieces. We know these works in some instances through the Roman copies. At first the Romans pretended to allow the Greeks self determination but in 146BC Rome conquered Corinth and then annexed all of Greece under Roman rule. As always with the Romans, the Greeks were allowed to retain their gods and their culture, which was highly respected by the Romans. Lets have a look at four videos to see why the Romans were so enamoured of Greek art – then we will plunge fully into Roman culture by first looking at an excellent video by Mary Beard at the city of Rome at the height of its development, a city of 1 million people from all over the Roman Empire. 1. Video Simon Schama, The 2nd Moment of creation. BBC Civilizations series, No.1 Schama looks at what leads up to the Greek developments in art eg Ur in Mesopotamia and The Minoans in Crete. With high trading routes on land and sea from the bronze age onwards, luxury goods and craft workers moved into cities wealthy enough to buy these commodities and spread some of these early techniques around. 2. Video: Greek Art History, A quick summary of all periods and styles. Its brief but a a quick look. Not as good as Mary beard’s rather idiosyncratic look in ‘Civilizations ’video Greek Art 8.46 mins.. 3. Video, Mary Beard, How do We Look?, BBC Civilizations series, No.2. Beard looks at the tomb statue of a young women called Phasiclaea and the famous bronze of ‘The Boxer’. Show two segments a) Introduction to the 4 minute point [stop] [4 minutes, then b) Start at the 8 minute spot…record to the 18 minute spot [10 minutes total] 4. Video, Zeus Bronze statue. 460 BC. 5 minutes. One statue from the classical period, to balance Mary Beard.

The Heart of the Empire – Rome

Introduce the Beard video Beard is a social historian who offers a number of personal hypotheses about life in ancient Rome Does Rome seem similar in any way to you? Would you have liked to live there? Video: Meet the Romans 60 mins. All Roads lead to Rome, BBC, 1 of 3 video Meet the Romans Mary Beard There are two further videos by Mary Beard about Roman Life. These are also worth viewing and each is 60 minutes. 1. Meet the Romans, Street Life, Mary Beard Rome 2 of 3 60 minutes 2. Meet the Romans, Behind Closed Doors ( Life in Roman homes) Mary Beard Rome 3 of 3, 60 minutes. Mary Beard argues that: Rome at its height of one million people was a highly multi-cultural city. Everyone came from somewhere else. Slaves brought back from successful conquests and free immigrants looking for opportunity both flooded into Rome. Slavery appeared less onerous than slavery in Greece. Many slaves learned a trade from their master, worked in his or her factory or business, and often were freed or bought their freedom. Many former slaves became both successful and citizens. Despite this slavery always induces abuses against the basic human rights of people. As the death rate was higher than the birth rate, Rome needed to encourage migrants to keep the population stable. Rome was a malarial city, which was a major cause of death. Elites, including the emperors, could be from different parts of the empire , or even former slaves who had gained citizenship. Port of Ostia was extended twice to facilitate the arrival of food and raw materials that the city needed. For the first time Romans identified themselves by their profession or job. The city was large enough to require specialization in the workforce: hairdressers, carpenters, bakers, luxury clothes manufacturers, dyers, pepper merchants, warehouse workers, fish mongers accounts managers etc etc. Beard proposes an interesting hypothesis about the colosseum and its entertainments. She claims its purpose was to show Romans how exotic the various parts of the empire was. The different types of gladiators’ armor was unlike military armor: it was fanciful and exaggerated and meant to entertain. Gladiators were expensive to train so their handlers wanted to avoid injuring or killing them. She compares gladiatorial combat with modern day wrestling – highly choreographed encounters meant to only suggest danger.

Discussion

Does Rome seem similar in any way to you? Would you have liked to live there? What were its main features? How do we know all this/ or how does Mary know it? [warning about personal interpretations of evidence – OK to do this but be careful]

Next Session

We will look more closely at the structure of the Empire, understand how the Romans controlled their conquered peoples through the Pax Romana, see a how the Roman emporers Claudius and Trajen built and extended the port and canals of Ostia near Rome to supply this huge city with food; and explore why the Western Roman Empire collapsed. END
3
australian colonial history
meg dillon
© Meg Dillon 2008
Australian Colonial History
Western Civilisation
Presenter Meg Dillon
Session 3
So far we have seen: There was an unbroken connection between the ancient Mediterranean cultures for over 2000 years. Inventions, basic supplies, luxury items were traded. This connection was fostered by sea trade between the different cultures : Phonecams, Ancient Egypt [ a major power], The Minoans of Crete, various Greek islands and the Greek peninsular and colonies. In the background the Persian Empire [a major power] was rising and conquering all the middle east area of Mesopotamia.[ Syria, Iran, Iraq and further east into Afghanistan. Overland trading routes were established through the Persian Empire that made goods from these inland places available around the Mediterranean. Ancient Troy was a key port in [northern Turkey] that grew wealthy in this trade. This may have been a key reason for the separate Greek forces banding together to attack and destroy it in the 1300s BC. A series of catastrophes occurred in the 1100s that included a 300 year drought, increased warfare as different groups fought with their neighbours to gain scarce resources and an increased period of volcanic activity that destroyed Crete and Mycenae. o Central governments collapsed o Elites disappeared o Centralised economies collapsed Greece was invaded by the Doriens around 1000BC bringing with them the new religion of the sky gods – the Greek pantheon of Zeus/ Hera Athena, Aphrodite etc. They enslaved the local population and established their own separate cities that slowly evolved into the Greek city states that we know. About 800BC ‘Homer’ gathered the legends about the earlier times in the 1300-1100. And wrote about this age of gods and heroes in Iliad and the Odyssey. Continued warfare on the Greek peninsular, all cities trained their men to become soldiers to fight and defend. Athens defended Greece in 840BC against the Persian Empite at Thermopolae and the Straights of Salamis. Greek cities were ruled by Tyrants, Kings and Oligarchies during this long period to 600BC. Many cities changed from one form to another as corruption and decay set in , forcing the change. In 594 BC Solon established a new form of government, a proto-democracy or participation by all male citizens in forming an assembly, an executive council and a complex court system in Athens. [Exclusive, unstable and unpopular] Athenian social structure consisted of citizens, foreigners and slaves. Athens grew powerful and rich through trade and the wealth of their silver mines. It was the most important city in Greece and supported a cultural revolution in which philosophers and Art [pottery and sculpture] became pre eminent in the Ancient World.

Questions/Discussions

Athens and the development of European Culture

Athenian art, theatre and philosophy have resurfaced again and again in Western Civilization: sometimes lost for a few centuries, then re discovered. They are influential even today. We will look briefly at several short videos that trace the development of art in Greece. We will leave the issues of philosophy until we start to look at the Italian Renaissance and later. o Study of ethics Socrates, Plato. What is correct or moral behaviour? o Study of science – by looking at how the natural world functions – astronomy, engineering, medicine etc. Their achievements in art,( pottery and sculpture ) brought them real wealth and these goods were mass produced and traded. These were also the goods that captivated the Romans and caused the Romans to become expert copiers of the most famous Greek pieces. We know these works in some instances through the Roman copies. At first the Romans pretended to allow the Greeks self determination but in 146BC Rome conquered Corinth and then annexed all of Greece under Roman rule. As always with the Romans, the Greeks were allowed to retain their gods and their culture, which was highly respected by the Romans. Lets have a look at four videos to see why the Romans were so enamoured of Greek art – then we will plunge fully into Roman culture by first looking at an excellent video by Mary Beard at the city of Rome at the height of its development, a city of 1 million people from all over the Roman Empire. 1. Video Simon Schama, The 2nd Moment of creation. BBC Civilizations series, No.1 Schama looks at what leads up to the Greek developments in art eg Ur in Mesopotamia and The Minoans in Crete. With high trading routes on land and sea from the bronze age onwards, luxury goods and craft workers moved into cities wealthy enough to buy these commodities and spread some of these early techniques around. 2. Video: Greek Art History, A quick summary of all periods and styles. Its brief but a a quick look. Not as good as Mary beard’s rather idiosyncratic look in ‘Civilizations ’video Greek Art 8.46 mins.. 3. Video, Mary Beard, How do We Look?, BBC Civilizations series, No.2. Beard looks at the tomb statue of a young women called Phasiclaea and the famous bronze of ‘The Boxer’. Show two segments a) Introduction to the 4 minute point [stop] [4 minutes, then b) Start at the 8 minute spot…record to the 18 minute spot [10 minutes total] 4. Video, Zeus Bronze statue. 460 BC. 5 minutes. To counteract Mary Beard. video Zeus Bronze statue One statue from the classical period,

The Heart of the Empire – Rome

Introduce the Beard video Beard is a social historian who offers a number of personal hypotheses about life in ancient Rome Does Rome seem similar in any way to you? Would you have liked to live there? Video: Meet the Romans 60 mins. All Roads lead to Rome, BBC, 1 of 3 video Meet the Romans Mary Beard There are two further videos by Mary Beard about Roman Life. These are also worth viewing and each is 60 minutes. 1. Meet the Romans, Street Life, Mary Beard Rome 2 of 3 60 minutes 2. Meet the Romans, Behind Closed Doors ( Life in Roman homes) Mary Beard Rome 3 of 3, 60 minutes. Mary Beard argues that: Rome at its height of one million people was a highly multi-cultural city. Everyone came from somewhere else. Slaves brought back from successful conquests and free immigrants looking for opportunity both flooded into Rome. Slavery appeared less onerous than slavery in Greece. Many slaves learned a trade from their master, worked in his or her factory or business, and often were freed or bought their freedom. Many former slaves became both successful and citizens. Despite this slavery always induces abuses against the basic human rights of people. As the death rate was higher than the birth rate, Rome needed to encourage migrants to keep the population stable. Rome was a malarial cit , which was a major cause of death. Elites, including the emperors, could be from different parts of the empire , or even former slaves who had gained citizenship. Port of Ostia was extended twice to facilitate the arrival of food and raw materials that the city needed. For the first time Romans identified themselves by their profession or job. The city was large enough to require specialization in the workforce: hairdressers, carpenters, bakers, luxury clothes manufacturers, dyers, pepper merchants, warehouse workers, fish mongers accounts managers etc etc. Beard proposes an interesting hypothesis about the colosseum and its entertainments. She claims its purpose was to show Romans how exotic the various parts of the empire was. The different types of gladiators’ armor was unlike military armor: it was fanciful and exaggerated and meant to entertain. Gladiators were expensive to train so their handlers wanted to avoid injuring or killing them. She compares gladiatorial combat with modern day wrestling – highly choreographed encounters meant to only suggest danger.

Discussion

Does Rome seem similar in any way to you? Would you have liked to live there? What were its main features? How do we know all this/ or how does Mary know it? [warning about personal interpretations of evidence – OK to do this but be careful]

Next Session

We will look more closely at the structure of the Empire, understand how the Romans controlled their conquered peoples through the Pax Romana, see a how the Roman emporers Claudius and Trajen built and extended the port and canals of Ostia near Rome to supply this huge city with food; and explore why the Western Roman Empire collapsed. END